Since writing this article in 2003, a lot of the specific equipment has changed, though the overall thrust of the article remains exactly as it was. I've updated many sections of this article to bring it more up to date, including my specific current support kit (see right column). I'll note in passing that there are more acceptable leg options in the mid-range now than there used to be. But I'm still convinced of my basic premise.
in 1973 I was practicing what I preach in this article, albeit then
I was using film cameras and very heavy tripods. Here I'm doing
my best Austin Powers Can You Dig It imitation while shooting a Pac-8
Baseball Championship game for ABC Sports. These days I still sometimes
look like a shag-o-delic Beatle, but yes, I've lost the plaid bell
bottoms...ladies, you can stop your swooning ;~)
One of the
things that comes up at least once at every workshop I teach is that someone
is shooting without enough support. I don't mean my teaching and cheerleading
is failing the student. I mean that they just aren't providing a secure
platform from which to shoot.
Maxim #1: You're wasting money on expensive AF-S and other Nikkor
optics if you fail to give your camera and lens a stable platform.
Yes, I understand
that sometimes you have to handhold your camera to get a shot, and that
some types of photography require you to be mobile and flexible. But better
handholding technique is a discussion for another article. Today, we're
talking about getting the kinds of shots I do, where we're not in a hurry
and can use a tripod.
let's pop our cameras onto a tripod and shoot. Hey, why do I see your
camera drooping on that tilt-down shot? And did I notice the end of your
lens vibrate a bit when you pressed the shutter release? Hmm. Well, you're
not going to like hearing this, but you shouldn't have purchased that
17-55mm AF-S lens. You'd be better served by getting the less expensive
18-70mm Nikkor and spending the money you saved on a better support system."
(Why does it feel like I've said that a lot, lately?)
students come to class with a good tripod and head, they aren't always
using it as securely as they should be. The bottom line is simple: if
the camera is moving when you shoot, you'll never resolve what the lens
is capable of. Other factors enter into the picture, too. If you mount
your camera on a decent tripod but hang a heavy lens off the front (like
the 80-200mm AF-S), you can actually get the center of gravity far enough
out from the leg support that the front of the lens still moves a bit
during exposure. And on many Nikon bodies, there's tangible "mirror
slap" vibration that shows up with telephoto lenses when the shutter
speed is in the 1/2 to 1/15 range (I usually suggest either avoiding the
1 second to 1/30 range with lenses over 100mm unless you have a solid
platform and use either mirror lockup (F4, F5, F6, D200, D2 series) or shutter delay option (D1 series, D80, and D100).
How do you tell if you've got a problem? Mount a longish lens on your camera and tripod (a 70-200mm or similar will do). Frame a shot with the tripod head loosened. Tighten the head down. Did your shot move? If yes, then you've got a bad head. Now take a 1/2 second exposure (why 1/2 second? I want the shutter to move in two actions, not one continuous one) while carefully watching the front of the lens. Did you see it move up/down/sideways in any fashion? If yes, then you've got a bad head and/or legs. Another possible test: lock the camera down. Pull down on the front of the lens slightly and release. It shouldn't move.
Maxim #2: You can spend US$1700 to buy a good tripod and head, or
you can spend US$1000 and do the same thing. (Corollary: eventually you'll
do one or the other.)
usual sequence that most photographers go through in getting to a stable
they try handholding. Eventually, they realize that their results aren't
as sharp as those of others.
- So the
next step is to work on improving technique. Elbows get tucked, the
camera is braced against stable objects, they stop holding their breath,
etc. But that doesn't solve every problem or work in every situation.
And it certainly doesn't always work for very long lenses.
- Next comes VR. After all, it's designed to take equipment movement out of the shot. It does, but it's not infallible, nor does it solve every problem, especially as you start trying to take two-second shots of waterfalls to get milky water action.
- Now we
find our photographer at the store buying a tripod. It's one of those
low-cost tripods with braces between the legs (that's gotta
make it stable, right?) that weighs a couple of pounds and has nice
looking aluminum legs (US$75). This solution seems to help with the
middle focal lengths, at least. But eventually the bottom section of
one of the legs gets a bit bent and doesn't collapse back into the other
sections easily. And with long or heavy lenses, the head "creeps"
when the camera is pointed downward. The whole thing shakes in the wind,
and you can't get down to ground level for shots. In fact, the photographer
finds that they're spending way too much time fighting the tripod rather
than taking pictures.
it seemed the light legs had to be part of the problem, the next step
is buy a heftier pod (US$125 min; US$200 spent so far). That usually
turns out to be one of the classic Bogen legs (3021 is popular; these
days also the 3001) with the two handle pan/tilt head. This solves one
of the problems: the bottom leg section doesn't get bent with use. And
used correctly, it solves the basic stability problem, as the 4-pound
weight and sturdy legs at least give the whole thing a solid base. But
now the problem seems to be that our photographer is constantly fiddling
with the head (pan/tilt heads were designed for video cameras,
not still cameras). Getting the camera level becomes a chore. Getting
a scene locked down doesn't always work the first time, either (that
head sag, again).
- So we
start the procession of the heads (US$50, US$75, US$125, US$200,
eventually some proprietary quick plates at US$25 or US$50 each; US$700 spent
so far). The first attempt at a new head will usually be a "better"
variant of what they had, or perhaps a very small, cheap ball head.
Neither will fix the problems our user has, and the primary problem
will still be getting the camera level quickly, so the next head is
usually the "pistol grip" type, because it seems to be "faster."
Problem still not corrected (and verticals are now a bit of a problem),
so we start the ball head parade. The first "decent" ball
head will be one of the Manfrotto (Giotto) heads, perhaps with a
plate system of some sort. That starts to work better, but the photographer
still finds that the camera moves a bit when they turn the knob to
the ball. And some of the plate systems have just enough slop in them
that the compromise the stability of the entire system (another problem
is that few of them "grip" the camera bottom in ways so that
they can't be turned; they eventually work loose and end up marring
the camera bottom's finish). So we try another, larger ball. Still,
our prototypical photographer doesn't "go all the way" just
yet because it seems ludicrous to spend US$350 on a head that mounts
onto a set of US$125 legs, right?
- The legs
are starting to make their shortcomings known. They don't let you get
down to ground level (or, if you've got the Bogen with the "trick"
centerpost, the stability isn't great in some positions). And the whole
concoction is starting to get a bit on the heavy side (depending on
the legs and head, perhaps as much as 7 pounds). So a set of Gitzo carbon
fiber legs is next on the list (US$550; US$1250 spent so far). Upon
acquisition of decent legs, it immediately becomes clear that the head
is the sole remaining problem point, so...
- Our photographer
breaks down and buys a Kirk, Really Right Stuff, Markins, or an Arca Swiss ball head (US$350
plus US$100 or more for plates; total spent: US$1700 or more). A
folk take a short detour here and buy something like the Linhof Profli
II ball head (US$250). And they find that that head fixes every problem
except one: the darned thing won't stay firmly screwed onto the legs
without using Locktite on it.
So, for more
than the cost of one pro grade Nikkor (with filters and a new case to
put it in) the photographer can finally see the quality of their lenses.
could just skip all the intermediary steps and buy the final solution
first. Just to clear, here's what I recommend for the kind of nature shooting
- A Gitzo
carbon fiber tripod or equivalent. Gitzo's come in a lot of flavors,
so take your time figuring out which one you want. The primary choices
are: number of leg sections, length of the leg sections, and centerpost
options. With the 6x revision to their carbon fiber line, Gitzo has totally confused everyone, including their Web master. Here's the short version: "Mountaineer" is the traditional Gitzo style and closest to the original carbon fiber Gitzo, just updated with the new leg locks and better tubes. "Traveler" is a unique version that folds backwards on itself to remain smaller during transport. "Leveling" means it's basically a Mountaineer with a leveling base. "Systematic" are the heavy duty tripods and generally don't include a centerpost. "Explorer" has the offset centerpost that can be rotated into non-vertical positions. We're looking for support here, so only the Mountaineer, Leveling, and Systematic models need apply. I believe the other two lines compromise stability too much, and even the leveling versions of the smaller models are iffy in stability, in my opinion. The 0, 1, 2, 3, and so at the start of the name on indicate the tube size. Some of the smaller tube sizes have a tendency to resonate wind and shutter vibrations, which makes them not good choices. In general, I recommend you avoid the 0 and 1 series if you're using any serious DSLR and going for solid stability. The 2 series works fine with D200-sized cameras with lenses up to the 70-200mm; the 3 series is recommended for anything larger. A G at the end of the name means it has a geared center column, which I recommend you avoid. The last two digits in the four-digit number indicate number of leg sections (30 = three, 40 = four, etc.). Get three if you can, but understand that the packed size will be longer, so you may need to check your luggage size first. Personally, I travel with smaller duffels and tend towards the four-section Gitzos, even though they compromise overall stability a bit. The usual choices for the weight conscious end up: the GT2530
if you're interested in the lowest possible weight (3.2 pounds; 1.4kg) or the GT2540 (which I use) if you want
same but need to pack it in carry-on sized luggage (the GT2530 collapses
to a little over 25", the GT2540 to 22"). If
you're not weight sensitive or need to run large teles on your
pod, the Gitzo
GT3530 is a far better choice, as it's a bit heavier and sturdier (4.7 pounds [2.1kg], 26" minimum size). Indeed, a few folk, such as macro
enthusiast John Shaw, think this is the bottom of the line you should
consider. (See Gitzo Cheat Sheet in right column for abbreviation key.) These days, there are some acceptable "equivalent" legs. Look carefully at the Bogen, Giotto, and Manfrotto lines and you'll find good solid legs that accomodate the heads I mention below. Generally you pay a weight penalty for anything that's not carbon fiber, though. Slik has one leg set I like, for instance, but it's seven pounds. The Gitzo Basalt tripods are adequate compromises between price and weight, but you can do better. The best price compromise for legs are the Bogen models, such as the 3021N for US$160 (5 lbs) or 3221WN for US$190 (6.2 pounds). But those pounds add up if you have to carry them far. You may choose to purchase one set of legs or do as I do and buy two. If you had to downgrade anywhere in this list, the legs would be the place to do it, in my opinion. That's because with good legs (you're only going to consider the good ones, right?), you can usually use set-up discipline to keep things steady. In other words, you don't extend fully, or don't splay the legs wide, or hang weight from the centerpost. US$400-$800
- One of the following brand heads: Kirk, Markins, Really Right Stuff, or Arca Swiss. And don't buy at the bottom of their lines if you ever want to mount something more than the 70-200mm on your rig. That means the Kirk BH-1 or RRS BH-55 or Arca B-1. Do not skimp here. You fiddle with the head on your tripod so much more often than the legs that any frustration with the head will very much aggravate you. Remember, you can use this head on multiple leg sets. US$350-400
- Kirk Photo
or Really Right Stuff Arca-style quick release plates for each camera
body you own, and for each lens that has a tripod collar. Should you get L-plates for your camera? Probably, as it gives you more flexibility, especially if you think you want to do panoramas. Is there a difference between the two plate systems? In terms of mounting, no, in terms of quality and features, most of us pros think the RRS plates offer a bit more polish and ability. US$50 to US$400+
in for a minimum of US$800, but more likely somewhere around US$1000.
Thus, I've saved you a minimum of US$700 if you just opt for this approach
from the beginning.
If you need
a less expensive solution and know you won't be shooting with lenses
over two pounds (basically under 300mm), there's another solution I can
recommend that gets you almost everything the other does:
HG-503MX or HG-404MX carbon fiber tripod (US$290-300). There are two
versions of the Hakuba, which differ mostly in slightly different leg
lengths. Either seems to be a decent knockoff of the low-end Gitzo. Note that Hakuba is distributed into the US by only a few places, like B&H, and has no presence of its own in the country. The model numbers are subject to change. The ones I just gave come with cheap heads you're going to throw away.
ball head (US$280). A strange looking head, but it is light (1 pound)
and works quite well. I especially like the fact that I can keep
the ball clean while traveling in hostile environments. Strongly consider
getting the rubber knobs (an extra cost option), as the metal knobs
lot of fiddling. Now that Acratech makes four heads, which one should you get? Well, I'm a fan of the older model (Ultimate Ballhead) myself, even though it has a tendency to pinch your fingers now and then. It's just simpler and easier to clean. The V2 fixes the pinch problem, and the GV2 and AZ work better with long lenses, but frankly, if you're using long lenses, you generally aren't interested in saving weight (you don't want the mass above the head to outweigh that below it).
Alternatively, the Kirk BH-3 head is a little heavier (20 ounces),
more traditional in design, as is the Really Right Stuff BH-40. Markins also makes a lighter ballhead that's acceptable.
gets you in the door for US$600+ and weighs in at about 4.5 pounds,
less if you use the short centerpost (or none) on the legs. Just don't
expect to mount your 300mm f/2.8 on it and be happy. (I originally
had a note in #2 above that confused even the Acratech folks; they
thought that I was saying that their head can't hold more than 4 pounds.
There are two intersecting issues here: (a) how much weight the head
hold at an angle without moving position; and (b) how much weight you
can place at the top of a light object and still expect the system
to work as 100% solid support. So let me clarify: the Acratech head can hold very
large loads (perhaps 10 pounds or more), but if you place a D2x and
300mm lens on top of a 4.5 pound support system, you've compromised
the support abilities, regardless of what the head can hold. The old
rule of thumb was that your tripod/head needed to be 1.5x (or more)
the weight of what was on top of it. These days, new materials and
designs let you get down to about 1x--assuming that have a disciplined
technique--but beyond that you're just asking for problems, especially
with long lenses or slow shutter speeds. So, to reiterate: I very much
like the Acratech head, and use it while backpacking; just don't expect
to create a <4-pound support solution that can support >4-pounds of
weight on top.)
of the long, heavy telephotos: if you use the 400mm, 500mm, 600mm,
the 300mm telephotos with extenders, at a minimum get a Wimberley
Sidekick (US$250). This clever device has to be used to be appreciated.
Essentially, it's the perfect way to get the weight of the camera and
lens balanced and stabilized on your pod. If you use long lenses all
the time, consider getting the full Wimberley gimbal head instead (and perhaps
heavier legs). A 600mm f/4 on a Wimberley head moves effortlessly enough
to track flying birds, yet gets enough support to render sharp photos. I've seen a lot of other gimbal options, but the Wimberley still seems to be the clear winner.
with two sturdy tripods (ball head not necessary) you can do laundry.
The late Galen Rowell (and wife Barbara relaxing near tent) doing
a bit of mid-day house chores near Alpamaya,
My Current Support Kit
- Gitzo GT2540. This 6x version of the old Mountaineer is slightly lighter and considerably more steady, both good things. This tripod is my lightweight support for backcountry work, either withe the Acratech head or the Really Right Stuff BH-40. I also tend to bring the Acratech leveling plate, though it doesn't have as much range as the Gitzo leveling base on the larger pods.
- Gitzo 1325 with leveling base. I haven't updated to the 6x model for my heavier tripod yet, so am still using the older 15xx series model. This is my primary tripod.
- Gitzo GM2540 monopod. Another 6x model, this is very light and easily carried almost anywhere. Put the Bogen swivel head on it as Really Right Stuff suggests.
- Really Right Stuff BH-55 ballhead. It's just better than the Kirk, and maybe better than anything else (I haven't tried everything, but what I have tried doesn't beat it). And when I managed to finally drive my BH-55 into the ground (literally), RRS simply fixed it.
- The Really Right Stuff Panorama setup. Mounted directly on the leveling base of the 1530, I can set up panos so fast now that it's almost a joy to do. An expensive option, but well worth it.
- Wimberley Sidekick. For large lens gimbal work, I use the Sidekick. That's because my large lens is a 200-400mm, and the Sidekick mounted in the BH-55 works fine for this. But if you've got a lens longer than that, you'll need the full Wimberley gimbal head.
My Previous Support Kit
1228 Mountaineer (bought when they first came out many years ago)
and 1325 tripod (used for longer lenses and macro work).
I also used a Gitzo Weekender (I think it was the 026) with center
removed as suggested by the late Galen Rowell,
which produced a very light, backpacking pod.
Photo Ball Head (the BH-1, the big one). The little pod was usually used with an Acratech ball
head (about a pound).
Right Stuff plates for all bodies and tripod collars of lenses I use,
including my Coolpix!
monopod decked out as described in the Really Right Stuff catalog.
any monopod will do, as long as you use the right "head" on it.
A Good Tripod and
- Set up
in seconds, without fiddling.
- Hold its
position no matter what the angle of the camera.
- Be completely
- Go from
ground level to full height without compromise.
- Lock all
positions securely enough that you're comfortable walking away from
the tripod even on windy days.
- Be able
to follow action and still provide support.
all attempts to bend and break (Galen used to demonstrate his Gitzo
1228 by standing on it).
the camera to go from horizontal to vertical orientation instantly.
- Be dragged
over rocks, through mud, sit in the ocean, or any other environment
you want to shoot in, and show nothing more than a few scratches for
- Be light
enough to always carry with you.
- Be heavy
enough to hold your heaviest lens and body secure in the worst possible
conditions and at the worst possible angle.
I suggest meet all those requirements. Does your current tripod
and head do the same?
Gitzo Cheat Sheet:
The new Gitzo 6X line has model numbers that look something like this:
Here's the basic cheat sheet:
- GT = Gitzo Tripod (as opposed to GM which is Gitzo monopod)
- ## is size of legs, with 05 being the smallest diameter and 55 being the largest. 05 and 15 work only for very light cameras. 25 and 35 are what DSLR shooters are looking for. 55 is best for studio or serious wildlife shooting.
- ## is number of leg sections, with 30 is three section, 40 is four, and 50 is five, and 60 is six. You want three if you can, four max.
- XX is a designation of type and/or option (both may appear in a name and Gitzo isn't 100% consistent, but these are the main ones):
- T = traveler
- EX = explorer
- L = long
- LVL = leveling
- S = systematic
- G = geared center
- V = video bowl
- nothing = mountaineer
The traveler is only good for light equipment, and I don't recommend the geared or explorer center columns.